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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Astro Stuff Planisphere 

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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Astro Stuff's Telescope Viewing Guide 

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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Astro Stuff's Telescope Viewing 

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To download your free copy of Getting Started in Astronomy from Sky & Telescope's web site, click on either of the following links:

BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Northern Hemisphere version (858-kilobyte PDF) with charts suitable for skywatchers in midnorthern latitudes such as the United States, southern Canada, and Europe.

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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Southern Hemisphere version (963-kilobyte PDF) with charts designed for observers in midsouthern latitudes such as Australia, southern Africa, and parts of South America.

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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Astrophotography Booklet

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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010Preliminary Notes About Telescopes

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BROCHURES / CATALOGS: Astrophotography Booklet
file size: 0.8 Mb
56k download: 1.84 min
uploaded on 01/12/2010SFA Observatory Star Charts by Dan Bruton

 March 22, 2010 - Saturn at Opposition. The ringed planet will be at its closest approach to Earth. This is the best time to view and photograph Saturn and its moons. Saturn's rings will be nearly edge-on this year and will be very difficult to see.
April 21, 22, 2010 - Lyrids Meteor Shower. The Lyrids are an average shower, usually producing about 20 meteors per hour at their peak. These meteors can produce bright dust trails that last for several seconds. This year's shower should peaks on the night of April 21 and the morning of the 22nd, although some meteors can be visible from April 16 - 25. The quarter moon will set early in the evening, leaving a dark sky for the best possible viewing in dark locations. Look for meteors radiating from the constellation of Lyra after midnight.
April 24, 2010  - Astronomy Day #1 - Astronomy day is a grass roots movement to share the joys of astronomy with the general public. Two days this year have been designated as Astronomy Day. On these days astronomy and stargazing clubs and other organizations around the world will plan special events. 
July 28, 29, 2010 - Southern Delta Aquarids Meteor Shower. The Delta Aquarids can produce about 20 meteors per hour at their peak. The shower usually peaks on July 28 & 29, but some meteors can also be seen from July 18 - August 18. The radiant point for this shower will be in the constellation Aquarius. Best viewing is usually to the east after midnight.
August 12, 13, 2010 - Perseids Meteor Shower. The Perseids is one of the best meteor showers to observe, producing up to 60 meteors per hour at their peak. This year's shower should peak on the night of August 12 and the morning of the 13th, but you may be able to see some meteors any time from July 23 - August 22. The radiant point for this shower will be in the constellation Perseus. The thin, crescent moon will be out of the way early, setting the stage for a potentially spectacular show. For best viewing, look to the northeast after midnight.
August 13, 2010 - Triple Conjunction with the Moon. The planets Venus, Mars, and Saturn will all be close to the thin, crescent moon on this evening. Look to the west just after sunset.
August 20, 2010 - Neptune at Opposition. The blue planet will be at its closest approach to Earth. This is the best time to view Neptune, although it will only appear as a tiny blue dot in all but the most powerful telescopes
September 21, 2010 - Jupiter at Opposition. The Solar System's largest planet will be at its closest approach to Earth. This is the best time to view and photograph Jupiter and its moons. The giant planet will be a big and bright as it gets in the night sky. A medium-sized telescope should be able to show you some of the details in Jupiter's cloud bands.
September 22, 2010 - Uranus at Opposition. The blue-green planet will be at its closest approach to Earth. This is the best time to view Uranus, although it will only appear as a tiny blue-green dot in all but the most powerful telescopes
October 16, 2010 - Astronomy Day # 2. Astronomy day is a grass roots movement to share the joys of astronomy with the general public. Two days this year have been designated as Astronomy Day. On these days astronomy and stargazing clubs and other organizations around the world will plan special events.
October 20, 2010 - Comet Hartley 2 will make its closest approach to Earth, coming within 11.2 million miles. For a few days around October 20, the comet should be bright enough to view with the naked eye in the early morning sky. You will, however, need to be far away from the glow of city lights. Look to the east just before sunrise. In early November, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft will observe comet Hartley 2 from a distance of about 600 miles.
October 21, 22, 2010 - Orionids Meteor Shower. The Orionids is an average shower producing about 20 meteors per hour at their peak. This shower usually peaks on the 21st, but it is highly irregular. A good show could be experienced on any morning from October 20 - 24, and some meteors may be seen any time from October 17 - 25. Best viewing will be to the east after midnight.
November 17, 18, 2010 - Leonids Meteor Shower. The Leonids is one of the better meteor showers to observe, producing an average of 40 meteors per hour at their peak. The shower itself has a cyclic peak year every 33 years where hundreds of meteors can be seen each hour. The last of these occurred in 2001. The shower usually peaks on November 17 & 18, but you may see some meteors from November 13 - 20. Look for the shower radiating from the constellation Leo after midnight.
December 13, 14, 2010 - Geminids Meteor Shower. Considered by many to be the best meteor shower in the heavens, the Geminids are known for producing up to 60 multicolored meteors per hour at their peak. The peak of the shower this year should occur on the night of December 13 and morning of the 14th, although some meteors should be visible from December 6 - 19. Some estimates say there could be as many as 120 meteors an hour visible from dark-sky locations. The radiant point for this shower will be in the constellation Gemini. The Moon will set early in the evening setting the sky up for a spectacular show. Best viewing is usually to the east after midnight.
Astro Stuff Resources

 

Maria:

North:
  1-  Mare Frigoris (Sea of Cold)
  2-  Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains)
  3-  Sinus Aestuum (Bay of Seething)

Northeast:
  4-  Sinus Medii (Bay of the Center)
  5-  Mare Vaporum (Sea of Vapors)
  6-  Mare Serenitatis (Sea of Serenity)
  7-  Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of Tranquillity)
  8-  Mare Crisium (Sea of Crises)
17-  Lacus Somniorum (Lake of Sleep)
18-  Palus Somnii (Marsh of Sleep)
19-  Mare Anguis (Sea of Snakes)
20-  Mare Undarum (Sea of Waves)

Southeast:
  9-  Mare Fecunditatis (Sea of Fecundity)
10-  Mare Nectaris (Sea of Nectar)
21-  Mare Spumans (Sea of Foam)

Southwest:
11-  Mare Nubium (Sea of Clouds)
12-  Mare Humorum (Sea of Moisture)
13-  Mare Cognitum (Known Sea)
22-  Palus Epidemiarum (Marsh of Diseases)

West:
14-  Oceanus Procellarum (Ocean of Storms)

Northwest:
15-  Sinus Roris (Bay of Dew)
16-  Sinus Iridum (Bay of Rainbows)

 

Montes (Mountains):

Northeast:
23-  Montes Alpes
24-  Vallis Alpes (Alpine Valley)
25-  Montes Caucasus
26-  Montes Apenninus
27-  Montes Haemus
28-  Montes Taurus

Southeast:
29-  Montes Pyrenaeus

Southwest:
30-  Rupes Recta (Straight Wall) [Geological Fault]
31-  Montes Riphaeus

Northwest:
32-  Vallis Schröteri (Schröter's Valley) [Northwest of Crater Aristarchus, 73, and North of Crater Herodotus]
33-  Montes Jura

 

Craters:

Northeast:
34-  Crater Aristotle [on the East part of Mare Frigoris, 1]
35-  Crater Cassini
36-  Crater Eudoxus
37-  Crater Endymion
38-  Crater Hercules
39-  Crater Atlas
40-  Crater Mercurius
41-  Crater Posidonius
42-  Crater Zeno
43-  Crater Le Monnier
44-  Crater Plinius
45-  Crater Vitruvius
46-  Cráter Cleomedes
47-  Crater Taruntius
48-  Crater Manilius
49-  Crater Archimedes
50-  Crater Autolycus
51-  Crater Aristillus

Southeast:
52-  Crater Langrenus
53-  Crater Goclenius
54-  Crater Hypatia
55-  Crater Theophilus
56-  Crater Rhaeticus [Crater Hipparchus is directly South of Crater Rhaeticus]
57-  Crater Stevinus
58-  Crater Ptolemaeus
59-  Crater Walter

Southwest:
60-  Crater Tycho
61-  Crater Pitatus
62-  Crater Schickard
63-  Crater Campanus
64-  Crater Bulliadus
65-  Crater Fra Mauro
66-  Crater Gassendi
67-  Crater Byrgius
68-  Crater Billy [Mons Hansteen is to the North of Crater Billy]
69-  Crater Crüger
70-  Crater Grimaldi
71-  Crater Riccioli

Northwest:
72-  Crater Kepler
73-  Crater Aristarchus [Crater Herodotus is West of Crater Aristarchus]
74-  Crater Copernicus
75-  Crater Pytheas
76-  Crater Eratosthenes [near the Southwestern extreme of Montes Apenninus, 26]
77-  Crater Mairan
78-  Crater Timocharis
79-  Crater Harpalus [Crater Pythagoras is North of Crater Harpalus]
80-  Crater Plato

This Moon map was provied by Observatorio ARVAL - Caracas, Venezuela. at http://www.oarval.org/MoonMapen.htm


Year New Moon First Quarter Full Moon Last Quarter ?T
2010 Jan 7 10:40 00h01m Jan 15 07:11 A Jan 23 10:53 Jan 30 06:18 Feb 5 23:49 Feb 14 02:51 Feb 22 00:42 Feb 28 16:38 Mar 7 15:42 Mar 15 21:01 Mar 23 11:00 Mar 30 02:25 Apr 6 09:37 Apr 14 12:29 Apr 21 18:20 Apr 28 12:18 May 6 04:15 May 14 01:04 May 20 23:43 May 27 23:07 Jun 4 22:13 Jun 12 11:15 Jun 19 04:30 Jun 26 11:30 p Jul 4 14:35 Jul 11 19:40 T Jul 18 10:11 Jul 26 01:37 Aug 3 04:59 Aug 10 03:08 Aug 16 18:14 Aug 24 17:05 Sep 1 17:22 Sep 8 10:30 Sep 15 05:50 Sep 23 09:17 Oct 1 03:52 Oct 7 18:44 Oct 14 21:27 Oct 23 01:36 Oct 30 12:46 Nov 6 04:52 Nov 13 16:39 Nov 21 17:27 Nov 28 20:36 Dec 5 17:36 Dec 13 13:59 Dec 21 08:13 t Dec 28 04:18

Astronomical Bases of Calendars

The principal astronomical cycles are the day (based on the rotation of the Earth on its axis), the year (based on the revolution of the Earth around the Sun), and the month (based on the revolution of the Moon around the Earth). The complexity of calendars arises because these cycles of revolution do not comprise an integral number of days, and because astronomical cycles are neither constant nor perfectly commensurable with each other.

The tropical year is defined as the mean interval between vernal equinoxes; it corresponds to the cycle of the seasons. The following expression, based on the orbital elements of Laskar (1986), is used for calculating the length of the tropical year:
365.2421896698 - 0.00000615359 T - 7.29E-10 T^2 + 2.64E-10 T^3 [days]
where T = (JD - 2451545.0)/36525 and JD is the Julian day number. However, the interval from a particular vernal equinox to the next may vary from this mean by several minutes.

The synodic month, the mean interval between conjunctions of the Moon and Sun, corresponds to the cycle of lunar phases. The following expression for the synodic month is based on the lunar theory of Chapront-Touze' and Chapront (1988):
29.5305888531 + 0.00000021621 T - 3.64E-10 T^2 [days].
Again T = (JD - 2451545.0)/36525 and JD is the Julian day number. Any particular phase cycle may vary from the mean by up to seven hours.

In the preceding formulas, T is measured in Julian centuries of Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT), which is independent of the variable rotation of the Earth. Thus, the lengths of the tropical year and synodic month are here defined in days of 86400 seconds of International Atomic Time (TAI).

From these formulas we see that the cycles change slowly with time. Furthermore, the formulas should not be considered to be absolute facts; they are the best approximations possible today. Therefore, a calendar year of an integral number of days cannot be perfectly synchronized to the tropical year. Approximate synchronization of calendar months with the lunar phases requires a complex sequence of months of 29 and 30 days. For convenience it is common to speak of a lunar year of twelve synodic months, or 354.36707 days.

Three distinct types of calendars have resulted from this situation. A solar calendar, of which the Gregorian calendar in its civil usage is an example, is designed to maintain synchrony with the tropical year. To do so, days are intercalated (forming leap years) to increase the average length of the calendar year. A lunar calendar, such as the Islamic calendar, follows the lunar phase cycle without regard for the tropical year. Thus the months of the Islamic calendar systematically shift with respect to the months of the Gregorian calendar. The third type of calendar, the lunisolar calendar, has a sequence of months based on the lunar phase cycle; but every few years a whole month is intercalated to bring the calendar back in phase with the tropical year. The Hebrew and Chinese calendars are examples of this type of calendar.

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